Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Studies on Hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system of RANA Cyanophlyotis and BUFO Melanosticus comprative Cytomorphology, Chemistry and Pharmacology

Hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system in two amphibian species “Rana cyanophlyotis and Bufo melanostieus is described. Cytomorphology of the neurosecretory cells in nucleus preopticus is similar to that described for other amphibian species. A majority of neurosecretory cells are unipolar. A few cells are however, bipolar. The cells of nucleus preopticus are disposed off in dorsal and ventral groups. No axonal flow of aldehyde fuehsin positive neurosecretory material could be traced into the third ventricle under normal conditions. Cyclical changes in the content of aldehyde fuchsin positive material in R. cyanophlyctis reveal highest fuchsinophilia in the months of May and July. The cyclical changes seem to correspond with the reproductive phases of the animal. Whereas it is possible to find two morphological types of aldehyde fuhsin positive granules in B. melanosticus, only one type oxists in R. cyanophlyctis. Two morphological types of granules have however, been found in cyanophlyctis under certain experimental conditions Effects of dehydration, salination, inanition and injections of oxytocin, vasopressin and adrenaline have been studied in each species in an identical experimental design. Dehydration, salination, inanition and adrenaline depletes the neureseeretory material in the nucleus preopticus The extent of funchsinophilia is increased with oxytocin. This affects both the dorsal and ventral groups of neurons. There is aittle change if any in vasopressin injected animals. Bioassayable oxytocic and vasopressor activities as recorded in the normal animals are of the order of 24.2+1.15 mu/mg and 31.4+1.75mu/mg and 69.0 _2.7mu/mg respectively in B.melanosticus. Under experimental conditions similar to those employed for cytomorphological investigations, oxytocic activity in salinated and vasopressin treated animals increases, but is reduced to 6.4+1.05 mu/mg in dhydrated animals. There is tittle change in the oxytocic activity in oxytocin treated animals as compared to the normal. The vasopressor activity increases in salinated animals, remains unchanges in vasopressin in injected and dehydrated animals and is deplated in oxytocin treated animals. It has been suggested that assayable activity in the neurointermediate lobe is coincident partly with the increase or decrease of funchsinophilia in the nucleus preopticus. Residual oxytocic activity in dehyindicate the presence of arginine vasopressin, arginine vasotocin and mesotocin. The bioassay data for B. melanosticus under identical experimental conditions has been similarly interpreted and the presence of arginine vasopressin and arginine vasotocin has been suggested. A slow quantal release from neurointermediate lobe, depending upon the circulating levels of these peptides seems to be operative at the level of the neurointermediate lobe Hypothalamic peptides isolated by papert chromatography have been characterized chemically and pharmacologically. Arginine vasopressin and arginine vasotocin are present in both the species. Mesotocin is present only in R. cyanophylctis. Certain peptides with pressor/oxytocic activity or without any activity have been located. That arginine vasotocin exists in at least three polymorphic forms in the two species is indicated from the data obtained. The microheteergenity described is on the chemical rather than pharmacological level. A possible evolution of these hormonal principles is discussed
Item Type:Thesis (PhD
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Seasonal and temperature variations in the mechanical contraction, strength duration and length tension properties of skeletal muscles of uromastix

Title of Thesis
M. Abdul Azeem
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Physiology/ University of Karachi
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
skeletal muscles, uromastix, mechanical contraction, strength duration, length tension, muscle mechanics, muscle fixation, muscle stimulation, length/ muscle weight ratio, gastrocnemius muscles
No Abstract

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Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Psychological reaction to divorce of divorced women and their children

In the present research it was demonstrated that parental divorce has its negative effects upon divorced women and their children. It was hypothesized that mean depression, anxiety and schizophrenic thinking of divorced women will be more as compared to married women. It was also hypothesized that mean need for achievement & self esteem will be low in children of divorced women whereas depressed mood and aggression will be more in children of divorced women as compared to children of married women.

In order to test these hypotheses, sixty women and sixty children were tested. IPAT depression, IPAT anxiety, WIST was administered on Thirty Divorced and Thirty married women. CAT was administered on the children of divorced women and married women.
The ‘t’ test was applied in order to get the statistical significance of results.
It was found that mean depression, Schizophrenic thinking, anxiety of divorced women was significantly high as compared to mean depression, anxiety and Schizophrenic thinking of married women.
Further more mean self-esteem was significantly low in children of divorced women as compared to mean self-esteem of children of married women. Mean aggression and mean depress mood was significantly high in children of divorced women as compared to mean aggression and mean depress mood of children of married women. Whereas the mean need for achievement of children of divorced and married women did not significantly differ.
Avenues for further researches have also been suggested.